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Books, articles and blogs about journalism - for journalists

Bookshelf

Our updated, crowd-sourced list of resources for journalists contains some of the best books, articles, blogs about the biggest issues journalism has faced, and continues to face. It includes essential reading on the role of journalism in politics, its impact on society, pressures on journalism, and the future of the profession and industry. (The * first items in each of the 19 categories are suggested starting points.)

Further suggested readings at the bottom of the document.

This reading list is curated by Meera Selva, Director of the RISJ Fellowship Programme, Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, Director of the RISJ, and Joy Jenkins, Research Fellow at the RISJ and is the result of suggestions from RISJ staff and researchers, RISJ journalist fellows, and all the different academics, journalists, and others who have provided is with ideas from our open call. Thanks to everyone who has made this possible.

New titles are listed in bold (sections 18 and 19 are completely new).

 

1) Some classic big ideas on journalism, media, and ideas in public life

* Lippmann, W. 1997. Public opinion. New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A: Transaction Publishers.

 

Carey, J. W. 1988. Communication as culture : Essays on media and society. New York; London: Routledge. (Especially the chapter “A Cultural Approach to Communication”)

 

Darnton, R. (1975). Writing news and telling stories. Daedalus, 104(2), 175-194.

 

Eisenstein, E. L. 1979. The printing press as an agent of change: Communications and cultural transformations in early modern Europe. Cambridge [Eng.]: Cambridge University Press.

 

Frankfurt, H. G. 2005. On bullshit. Princeton, NJ; Oxford: Princeton University Press.

 

Zelizer, B. (1993). Journalists as interpretive communities. Critical Studies in Media Communication10(3), 219-237.

 

2) What is journalism and news?

* Rusbridger, A. (2018). Breaking news: The remaking of journalism and why it matters now. London: Canon Gate.

 

* Deuze, M. (2005). What is journalism? Professional identity and ideology of journalists reconsidered. Journalism, 6(4), 442-464. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884905056815

 

Hanitzsch, T. et al. (2011). Mapping journalism cultures across nations. Journalism Studies, 12(3), 273-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2010.512502

 

Kovach, B., & Rosenthiel, T. (2014). The elements of journalism: What newspeople should know and the public should expect. New York: Three Rivers Press.

 

Rosen, J. (2006). The people formerly known as the audience. PressThink (blog). http://archive.pressthink.org/2006/06/27/ppl_frmr.html.

 

Roudakova, N. (2017) Losing Pravda: Ethics and the press in post-truth Russia. Cambridge University Press.

 

3) Audience behaviour

* Newman, N., Fletcher, R., Kalogeropoulos, A., Levy, D. A. L., & Nielsen, R. K. (2018). Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2018. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/

 

Berelson, B. (1949). What ‘missing the newspaper’ means. In P. F. Lazarsfeld & F. N. Stanton (Eds.), Communication Research 1948-1949 (pp. 111–129). New York: Harper.

 

Palmer, R. (2017). Becoming the news: How ordinary people respond to the media spotlight. Columbia University Press.

 

Webster, J. G. (2014). The marketplace of attention: How audiences take shape in a digital age. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

 

4) Trust and the news media

* O’Neill, O. (2002). A question of trust. Reith Lectures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Also available at https://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2002/lectures.shtml)

 

Hanitzsch, T., Van Dalen, A., & Steindl, N. (2017). Caught in the nexus: A comparative and longitudinal analysis of public trust in the press. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 23(1), 3-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161217740695

 

Ladd, J. M. (2012). Why Americans hate the media and how it matters. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

 

5) Inequality and polarisation in news use

* Prior, M. (2005). News vs. entertainment: How increasing media choice widens gaps in political knowledge and turnout. American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), 577–92. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2005.00143.x.

 

Stroud, N. J. (2007). Media use and political predispositions: Revisiting the concept of selective exposure. Political Behavior, 30(3), 341–66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-007-9050-9.

 

Schlozman, K. L., Verba, S., & Brady, H. E. (2010). Weapon of the strong? Participatory inequality and the Internet. Perspectives on Politics, 8(02), 487–509. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592710001210.

 

6) Framing and media effects

* CommGap. (2012). Media effects. World Bank Communication for Governance Accountability Program. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTGOVACC/Resources/MediaEffectsweb.pdf (short overview; see Valkenburg et al. below for a more comprehensive overview).

 

Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x.

 

Carpini, M. D. (2004). Mediating democratic engagement: The impact of communications on citizens’ involvement in political and civic life. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), The handbook of political communication research (pp. 357-394). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Valkenburg, P. M., Peter, J., & Walther, J. B. (2016). Media effects: Theory and research. Annual Review of Psychology, 67(1), 315–38. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033608.

 

7) Relations between reporters and officials

* Bennett, W. L. (1990). Toward a theory of press-state relations in the United States. The Journal of Communication, 40(2), 103–27. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1990.tb02265.x.

 

Ciboh, R. (2017). Journalists and political sources in Nigeria: Between information subsidies and political pressures. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 22(2), 185–201. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161216681164.

 

Cook, T. (2005). Governing with the news (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press.

 

Cushion, S., Lewis, J., & Callaghan, R. (2017). Data journalism, impartiality and statistical claims. Journalism Practice, 11(10), 1198–1215. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2016.1256789.

 

8) News, race, and recognition

* Lamont, M. (2018). Addressing recognition gaps: Destigmatization and the reduction of inequality. American Sociological Review, 83(3), 419-444. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0003122418773775

 

Robinson, S., & Culver, K. B. (2016). When white reporters cover race: News media, objectivity and community (dis)trust. Journalism, https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1464884916663599.

 

Dijk, T. A. van. 1991. Racism and the press. London: Routledge.

 

9) Women and journalism

* Franks, S. (2013). Women and Journalism. London: I.B.Tauris.

 

Tuchman, G. (1997). The symbolic annihilation of women by the mass media. In O. Boyd-Barrett & C.

 

Newbold (Eds.), Approaches to media: A reader (pp. 406-410). London: St. Martin’s Press.

 

Usher, N., Holcomb, J., & Littman, J. (2018). Twitter makes it worse: Political journalists, gendered echo chambers, and the amplification of gender bias. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 23(3), 324–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161218781254.

 

10) Business of news

* Nielsen, R. K. (forthcoming). The changing economic contexts of journalism. In T. Hanitzsch and K. Wahl-Jorgensen (eds.), Handbook of journalism studies. https://rasmuskleisnielsen.files.wordpress.com/2018/05/nielsen-the-changing-economic-contexts-of-journalism-v2.pdf.

Hamilton, J. T. (2004). All the news that’s fit to sell: How the market transforms information into news. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

 

Schiffrin, A. (ed.). (2017). In In the service of power: Media capture and the threat to democracy. Washington D.C.: Center for International Media Assistance. https://www.cima.ned.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Capture4_Media-Capture-in-the-Digital-Age.pdf.

 

Cornia, A., Sehl, A., & Nielsen, R. K. (2018). ‘We no longer live in a time of separation’: A comparative analysis of how editorial and commercial integration became a norm. Journalism, https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884918779919

 

11) Innovation in the media

* Küng, L. (2015). Innovators in Digital News. RISJ Challenges. London: Tauris.

 

Anderson, C. W., Emily Bell, and Clay Shirky. (2012). Post-industrial journalism: Adapting to the present. New York: Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Columbia Journalism School. http://towcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/TOWCenter-Post_Industrial_Journalism.pdf.

 

Boczkowski, P. J. (2004). Digitizing the news: Innovation in online newspapers. Inside Technology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

 

Creech, B., & Nadler, A. M. (2018). Post-industrial fog: Reconsidering innovation in visions of journalism’s future. Journalism19(2), 182-199. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1464884916689573

 

Anand, B. (2016). The content trap: A strategist's guide to digital change. Random House Group.

 

12) Platform companies and news media

* Bell, E. J., Owen, T., Brown, P. T., Hauka, C., & Rashidian, N. (2017). The Platform Press: How Silicon Valley Reengineered Journalism. https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:15dv41ns27.

 

Nielsen, R. K., & Ganter, S. A. (2017). Dealing with digital intermediaries: A case study of the relations between publishers and platforms. New Media & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444817701318.

 

Parker, G., Van Alstyne, M., & Choudary, S. P. (2016). Platform revolution: How networked markets are transforming the economy - and how to make them work for you. New York: WWNorton and Company.

 

Dijck, J. van, T. Poell & M de Waal. 2018. The Platform Society: Public Values in a Connective World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

13) Digital media and technology

* Dijck, J. van. (2013). The culture of connectivity : A critical history of social media. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Borgesius, F. J. Z., Trilling, D., Möller, J., Bodó, B., de Vreese, C. H., & Helberger, N. (2016). Should We Worry about Filter Bubbles? Internet Policy Review, March. https://policyreview.info/articles/analysis/should-we-worry-about-filter-bubbles.

 

Marwick, A. E., & boyd, d. (2011). I Tweet Honestly, I Tweet Passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience.” New Media & Society, 13(1), 114–33. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444810365313.

 

Lewis, S. C. 2012. The tension between professional control and open participation: Journalism and its boundaries. Information, Communication & Society15(6), 836-866. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.674150

 

14) Disinformation

* Wardle, C., & Derakhshan, H. (2017). Information Disorder: Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Research and Policy Making. Report to the Council of Europe. https://shorensteincenter. org/information-disorder-framework-for-research-and-policymaking.

 

Grinberg, N., Joseph, K., Friedland, L., Swire-Thompson, B., & Lazer, D. (2019, January 25). Fake news on Twitter during the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Science, 363(6425), 374-378. doi: 10.1126/science.aau2706. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6425/374 

 

Guess, A., Nyhan, B., & Reifler, J. (2017). Fact-Checking and Fake News in Election 2016. In American Political Science Association Annual Meeting. http://tinyurl.com/n8jzuaj.

 

Guess, A., Nagler, J., & Tucker, J. (2019, January 9). Less than you think: Prevalence and predictors of fake news dissemination on Facebook. Science Advances, 5(1), doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau4586

 

Nielsen, R. K., & Graves, L. (2017). ‘News You Don’t Believe’: Audience perspectives on fake news. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. http://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2017-10/Nielsen%26Graves_factsheet_1710v3_FINAL_download.pdf.

 

Van Duyn, E., & Collier, J. (2018). Priming and fake news: The effects of elite discourse on evaluations of news media. Mass Communication and Society, 22(1), 1-20. doi: 10.1080/15205436.2018.1511807

 

Vosoughi, S., Roy, D., & Aral, S. (2018, March 9). The spread of true and false news online. Science, 359(6380), 1146-1151. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6380/1146

 

Weatherall, J. O., O’Connor, C., & Bruner, J. P. (2018, August 23). How to beat science and influence people: Policymakers and propaganda in epistemic networks.The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. doi: 10.1093/bjps/axy062

 

15) Democracy, journalism, and media

* Schudson, M. (2008). Why democracies need an unlovable press. Cambridge, UK: Polity. (Especially the chapter “Six or Seven Things that Journalism can do for Democracy”)

 

Josephi, B. (2013). How much democracy does journalism need? Journalism, 14(4), 474–89. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884912464172.

 

Tufekci, Z. (2018). How Social Media Took Us from Tahrir Square to Donald Trump. MIT Technology Review. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/611806/how-social-media-took-us-from-tahrir-square-to-donald-trump/.

Howard, P. N., & Hussain, M. M. (2011). The role of digital media. Journal of Democracy, 22(3), 35-48. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2011.0041.

 

16) Censorship and propaganda

* Simon, J. (2014). The new censorship : Inside the global battle for media freedom. Columbia Journalism Review Books. New York: Columbia University Press.

 

Diamond, L. (2015). Facing up to the democratic recession. Journal of Democracy, 26(1), 141–155.

 

George, C. (2017). Hate spin: The manufacture of religious offense and its threat to democracy. Reprint edition. MIT Press.

 

Glasius, M., & Michaelsen, M. (2018). Authoritarian practices in the digital age: Illiberal and authoritarian practices in the digital sphere. International Journal of Communication. http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/8899.

 

17) International/comparative research including examples of work on a specific country (India – more countries below)

* Hallin, D. C., & Mancini, P. (2005). Comparing media systems. In J. Curran & M. Gurevitch (Eds.), Mass Media and Society (4th ed.) (pp. 215–33). London: Hodder Arnold.

 

Voltmer, K. (2013). The media in transitional democracies. Cambridge: Polity.

 

Jeffrey, R. (2000). India’s newspaper revolution: Capitalism, politics and the Indian-language press, 1977-99. London: Hurst.

 

Ninan, S. (2007). Headlines from the heartland : Reinventing the Hindi public sphere. New Delhi: London.

 

18) Local journalism

* Hess, K., & Waller, L. (2017). Local journalism in a digital world. Basingstoke: Palgrave  Macmillan.

 

Napoli, P. M., Stonbely, S., McCollough, K., & Renninger, B. (2017). Local journalism and the information needs of local communities: Toward a scalable assessment approach. Journalism Practice, 11(4), 373-395.

 

Nielsen, R. K. (ed.). (2015). Local journalism: The decline of newspapers and the rise of digital media. London: I. B. Tauris.

 

Reader, B., & Hatcher, J. (2012). Foundations of community journalism. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

 

19) Media policy

Norris, P. (ed.) (2010). Public sentinel: News media & governance reform. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

 

Waisbord, S. (2007). Democratic journalism and “statelessness.” Political Communication24(2), 115-129.

 

Benson, R., Powers, M., & Neff, T. (2017). Public media autonomy and accountability: Best and worst policy practices in 12 leading democracies. International Journal of Communication11, 22.

 

Further suggested readings (not organised by topic)

 

Journal Articles

Aelst, Peter Van, and Stefaan Walgrave. 2011. “Minimal or Massive? The Political Agenda-Setting Power of the Mass Media According to Different Methods.” The International Journal of Press/Politics 16 (3): 295–313.

 

Aelst, Peter Van, Jesper Strömbäck, Toril Aalberg, Frank Esser, Claes de Vreese, Jörg Matthes, David Hopmann, et al. 2017. ‘Political Communication in a High-Choice Media Environment: A Challenge for Democracy?’ Annals of the International Communication Association 41 (1): 3–27.

 

Ananny, Mike, and Kate Crawford. 2016. “Seeing without Knowing: Limitations of the Transparency Ideal and Its Application to Algorithmic Accountability.” New Media & Society, December. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444816676645.

 

Bennett, W. Lance, and Alexandra Segerberg. 2012. “The Logic of Connective Action.” Information, Communication & Society 15 (5): 739–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.670661.

 

Boyle, M. P. (2012). Soundbitten: The perils of media-centered political activism. Political Science Quarterly127(3), 492-494.

 

Clerwall, C. (2014). Enter the robot journalist. Journalism Practice, 8(5), 519–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2014.883116

 

Cohen, N. S. (2015). Entrepreneurial journalism and the precarious state of media work. South Atlantic Quarterly114(3), 513-533. https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-3130723

 

Cornia, A., Sehl, A., & Nielsen, R. K. (2018). ‘We no longer live in a time of separation’: A comparative analysis of how editorial and commercial integration became a norm. Journalism, https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884918779919

 

Creech, B., & Nadler, A. M. (2018). Post-industrial fog: Reconsidering innovation in visions of journalism’s future. Journalism19(2), 182-199. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1464884916689573

 

Cushion, S., Lewis, J., & Callaghan, R. (2017). Data journalism, impartiality and statistical claims: Towards more independent scrutiny in news reporting. Journalism Practice11(10), 1198-1215.

 

Darling-Wolf, F., & Mendelson, A. L. (2008). Seeing themselves through the lens of the other: An analysis of the cross-cultural production and negotiation of National Geographic’s “The Samurai Way” story. Journalism & Communication Monographs10(3), 285-322. https://doi.org/10.1177/152263790801000303

 

Deuze, M., & Witschge, T. (2018). Beyond journalism: Theorizing the transformation of journalism. Journalism19(2), 165-181. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1464884916688550

 

Ekdale, B., Singer, J. B., Tully, M., & Harmsen, S. (2015). Making change: Diffusion of technological, relational, and cultural innovation in the newsroom. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly92(4), 938-958. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1077699015596337

 

Ekdale, B., Tully, M., Harmsen, S., & Singer, J. B. (2015). Newswork within a culture of job insecurity: Producing news amidst organizational and industry uncertainty. Journalism Practice9(3), 383-398.


Fahmy, S., & Neumann, R. (2012). Shooting war or peace photographs? An examination of newswires’ coverage of the conflict in Gaza (2008-2009). American Behavioral Scientist56(2), NP1-NP26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764211419355

 

Ferrer-Conill, R., & Tandoc, E. C. (2018). The audience-oriented editor. Digital Journalism, 6(4), 436-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2018.1440972

 

Galtung, J., & Ruge, M. H. (1965). The structure of foreign news: The presentation of the Congo, Cuba and Cyprus crises in four Norwegian newspapers. Journal of Peace Research2(1), 64-90. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F002234336500200104

 

Gamson, W. A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992). Media images and the social construction of reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18(1), 373-393. doi:10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.002105.

 

Grafton, A. (2002). How revolutionary was the print revolution? The American Historical Review107(1), 84-86. https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/107.1.84

 

Hanitzsch, T., Van Dalen, A., & Steindl, N. (2017). Caught in the nexus: A comparative and longitudinal analysis of public trust in the press. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 23(1), 3-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161217740695

 

Harcup, T., & O’Neill, D. (2001). What Is news? Galtung and Ruge revisited. Journalism Studies, 2(2), 261-80.

 

Harcup, Tony, and Deirdre O’Neill. 2017. “What is News? News values revisited (again)” Journalism Studies 18 (12): 1470–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2016.1150193.

 

Heise, N., Loosen, W., Reimer, J., & Schmidt, J. H. (2014). Including the audience: Comparing the attitudes and expectations of journalists and users towards participation in German TV news journalism. Journalism Studies15(4), 411-430. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2013.831232

 

Josephi, B., & Oller Alonso, M. (2018). Re-examining age: Journalism’s reliance on the young. Journalism, doi: 1464884918800077.


Jungherr, A. (2016). Four functions of digital tools in election campaigns: The German case. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 21(3), 358-77. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161216642597

 

Karlsson, M., and Clerwall, C. (2018). Transparency to the rescue?’ Journalism Studies, 19(13), 1923-33. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2018.1492882

 

Kormelink, T. G., & Costera Meijer, I. (2017). What clicks actually mean: Exploring digital news user practices. Journalism, 19(5), 668-83. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884916688290

 

Lamont, M. (2018). Addressing recognition gaps: Destigmatization and the reduction of inequality. American Sociological Review83(3), 419-444. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0003122418773775

 

Lewis, J. (2006). News and the empowerment of citizens. European Journal of Cultural Studies9(3), 303-319. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1367549406066075

 

Lewis, S. C. (2012). The tension between professional control and open participation: Journalism and its boundaries. Information, Communication & Society15(6), 836-866. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.674150

 

Lewis, S. C., Holton, A. E., & Coddington, M. (2014). Reciprocal journalism: A concept of mutual exchange between journalists and audiences. Journalism Practice8(2), 229-241. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2013.859840

 

Loosen, W., Reimer, J., & De Silva-Schmidt, F. (2017). Data-driven reporting: An on-going (r)evolution? An analysis of projects nominated for the Data Journalism Awards 2013–2016. Journalism. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884917735691

 

Lück, J., Wozniak, A., & Wessler, H. (2015). Networks of coproduction: How journalists and environmental NGOs create common interpretations of the UN climate change conferences. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 21(1), 25-47. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161215612204

 

Macías, R. A. G. (2015). Investigative journalism in Mexico: Between ideals and realities: The case of

 

Morelia. Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodístico. 22(2), 343-359. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/45655299.pdf

 

Metzger, M. J., Flanagin, A. J., & Medders, R. B. (2010). Social and heuristic approaches to credibility evaluation online. Journal of Communication60(3), 413-439.

Örnebring, H. (2008). The consumer as producer—of what? User-generated tabloid content in The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden). Journalism Studies9(5), 771-785. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700802207789


Örnebring, H. (2013). Anything you can do, I can do better? Professional journalists on citizen journalism in six European countries. International Communication Gazette75(1), 35-53 https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048512461761

 

Sehl, A., Cornia, A., Graves, L., & Nielsen, R. K. (2018). Newsroom integration as an organizational challenge: Approaches of European public service media from a comparative perspective. Journalism Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2018.1507684

 

Singer, J. B. (2006). The socially responsible existentialist: A normative emphasis for journalists in a new media environment. Journalism Studies7(1), 2-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700500450277

 

Tambini, D. (2010). What are financial journalists for?. Journalism Studies11(2), 158-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700903378661

 

Thesen, G. (2018). News content and populist radical right party support. The case of Denmark. Electoral Studies, 56, 80-89.


Tuchman, G. (1972). Objectivity as strategic ritual: An examination of newsmen's notions of objectivity. American Journal of Sociology77(4), 660-679.


Turow, Joseph, and Nick Couldry. 2018. “Media as Data Extraction: Towards a New Map of a Transformed Communications Field.” Journal of Communication 68 (2): 415–23. https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqx011.

 

Van Dalen, A. (2012). The algorithms behind the headlines: How machine-written news redefines the core skills of human journalists. Journalism Practice6(5-6), 648-658. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2012.667268

 

Wahl-Jorgensen, K., et al. (2016). Rethinking balance and impartiality in journalism? How the BBC attempted and failed to change the paradigm. Journalism, 18(7), 781-800. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884916648094

 

Wood, T., & Porter, E. (2016). The elusive backfire effect: Mass attitudes’ steadfast factual adherence. Political Behavior, 1-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2819073

 

Books and Book Chapters

Alexander, J. C. (2010). The performance of politics: Obama's victory and the democratic struggle for power. Oxford University Press.

 

Altemeyer, B. (2018). The authoritarians. Retrieved from https://theauthoritarians.org/

 

Bowker, G. C., & Star, S. L. (2000). Sorting things out: Classification and its consequences. MIT Press.

 

Bunce, M., Franks, S., & Paterson, C. (Eds.). (2016). Africa’s media image in the 21st century: From the

“Heart of Darkness” to “Africa Rising.” Routledge.

 

Carpini, M. D. (2004). Mediating democratic engagement: The impact of communications on citizens’ involvement in political and civic life. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), The handbook of political communication research (pp. 357-394). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Chadwick, Andrew. 2017. The Hybrid Media System: Politics and Power. Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Clark, L. S., & Marchi, R. (2017). Young people and the future of news: Social media and the rise of connective journalism. Cambridge University Press (Chapter 3).

 

Daston, L. J., & Galison, P. (2007). Objectivity. MIT Press.

 

De Maupassant, G. (1885). Bel-Ami. Paris: Victor Havard.

Ettema, J. S., Glasser, T. L., & Glasser, T. (1998). Custodians of conscience: Investigative journalism and public virtue. Columbia University Press. (All but chapter 3)

 

Evans, H. (2017). Do I make myself clear?: Why writing well matters. London: Little, Brown.

 

Franklin, Bob. 2006. Local Journalism and Local Media: Making the Local News. Routledge.

 

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2018. Custodians of the Internet: Platforms, Content Moderation, and the Hidden Decisions That Shape Social Media. New Haven: Yale University Press.

 

Gitlin, T. (2003). The whole world is watching: Mass media in the making and unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press.

 

Hallin, D. C., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing media systems: Three models of media and politics. Cambridge University Press.

 

Hamilton, J. T. (2016). Democracy’s detectives. Harvard University Press.

 

Harris, R. (1994). The media trilogy. London: Faber & Faber.

 

Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (2010). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. Random House.

 

Hermida, Alfred. 2014. Tell Everyone: Why We Share and Why It Matters. Toronto: Doubleday Canada.

 

Hersh, E. D. (2015). Hacking the electorate: How campaigns perceive voters. Cambridge University Press.

 

Hopkins, D. J. The increasingly United States. University of Chicago Press.

 

Iyengar, S., & McGrady, J. A.  (2007). Media politics, A citizen’s guide. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. (Chapter 4)

 

Jenkins, H., Ford, S., & Green, J. (2013). Spreadable media: Creating value and meaning in a networked culture. NYU Press. (Chapter 4)

 

Joseph, A. (2005). Making news: Women in journalism (2nd ed.). Penguin Books India.

 

Joseph, A., & Sharma, K. (Eds.). (2006). Whose news? The media and women’s issues (2nd ed.). Sage.

 

Kraidy, Marwan M. 2017. The Naked Blogger of Cairo: Creative Insurgency in the Arab World. Reprint edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

 

MacKinnon, Rebecca. 2013. Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle For Internet Freedom. Reprint edition. New York: Basic Books.

 

Manning, P. (2000). News and news sources: A critical introduction. Sage.

 

McChesney, R. W. (2013). Digital disconnect: How capitalism is turning the Internet against democracy. The New Press. (Chapters 4-5)

 

O’Neil, C. (2016). Weapons of math destruction. London: Penguin Random House.

Orwell, G. (1949). Nineteen eighty-four. London: Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd.

 

Pearlstine, N. (2007). Off the record: The press, the government, and the war over anonymous sources. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

 

Peters, C., & Broersma, M. (Eds.). (2016). Rethinking journalism again: Societal role and public relevance in a digital age. Taylor & Francis.

 

Porter, T. M. (1996). Trust in numbers: The pursuit of objectivity in science and public life. Princeton University Press.

 

Repnikova, Maria. 2018. Media Politics in China: Improvising Power under Authoritarianism. Cambridge University Press.

 

Rosen, J. (1997). Introduction: “We’ll Have That Conversation”: Journalism and Democracy in the Thought of James W. Carey. In Munson E. & Warren C. (Eds.), James Carey: A critical reader (pp. 191-206). University of Minnesota Press.

 

Salganik, M. (2017). Observing behavior. In Salganik, M. J. (Ed.), Bit by bit: Social research in the digital age (pp. 13-83). New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

 

Sharma, K. (Ed.). (2010). Missing: Half the story: Journalism as if gender matters. New Delhi: Zubaan.

 

Silverstone, R. (2006). Media and morality: On the rise of the mediapolis. Policy. (Chapter 2: Mediapolis or the Space of Appearance)

 

Singer, Jane B., David Domingo, Ari Heinonen, Alfred Hermida, Steve Paulussen, Thorsten Quandt, Zvi Reich, and Marina Vujnovic. 2011. Participatory Journalism : Guarding Open Gates at Online Newspapers. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

Sontag, S. (2003). Regarding the pain of others. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

 

Steele, Janet. 2018. Mediating Islam: Cosmopolitan Journalisms in Muslim Southeast Asia. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

 

Storsul, T., & Krumsvik, A. H. (Eds.) (2013). Media innovations: A multidisciplinary study of change. Nordicom. (Chapter 1)

 

Van Zoonen, L. (2002). One of the girls?: The changing gender of journalism. In C. Carter, G. A. Branston, & S. Allan (Eds.), News, gender and power (pp. 45-58). Routledge.

 

Conference Papers

Duffy, M., Thorson, E., & Vultee, F. (2009, August). Advocating advocacy: Acknowledging and teaching journalism as persuasion. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Boston, MA.

 

Work Published in MSM, Medium, Blogs

Hofstadter, R. (1964, November). The paranoid style in American politics. Harper’s Magazine. Retrieved from https://harpers.org/archive/1964/11/the-paranoid-style-in-american-politics/

 

Lakoff, G. (2016). Understanding Trump. GeorgeLakoff.com. Retrieved from https://georgelakoff.com/2016/07/23/understanding-trump-2/

 

O'Neill, O. (2002). Reith Lectures on “A Question of Trust.” Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2002/lectures.shtml

 

Ripley, A. (2018, 27 June). Complicating the narratives. Medium. Retrieved from https://thewholestory.solutionsjournalism.org/complicating-the-narratives-b91ea06ddf63

 

Tufekci, Z. (2018, 6 April). Why Zuckerberg’s 14-year apology tour hasn’t fixed Facebook. Wired. Retrieved from https://www.wired.com/story/why-zuckerberg-15-year-apology-tour-hasnt-fixed-facebook/

 

Reports

Graefe, A. (2016). Guide to automated journalism. Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Columbia Journalism School, New York City. Retrieved from https://towcenter.org/research/guide-to-automated-journalism/

 

Hofseth, A. (2016, July). Make yourself useful: Six simple things your newsroom can do for democracy. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. Retrieved from https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/our-research/make-yourself-useful-six-simple-things-your-newsroom-can-do-democracy

 

Marwick, A., & Lewis, R. (2017). Media manipulation and disinformation online.  Data & Society. Retrieved from http://www.chinhnghia.com/DataAndSociety_MediaManipulationAndDisinformationOnline.pdf

 

Phillips, W. (2018). The Oxygen of Amplification. Data & Society. Retrieved from https://datasociety.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2-PART-2_Oxygen_of_Amplification_DS.pdf