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Country and market data 2023

Country and market data

Methodological note

In this section we publish a market-based view of the findings, which includes an overview of the most important data points in terms of news. These include an overview of consumption in each market, including details of the most popular news brands – traditional and online. The pages also contain statistics about the different sources of news over time, the role of different social networks, and levels of payment for online news. Information is drawn from the 2023 Digital News Report survey using the methodology outlined here, with the exception of population and internet levels which are drawn from the latest edition of Internet World Statistics1 and press freedom scores from Reporters Without Borders.2

Data from India, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa are representative of younger English-speakers rather than the national population. The survey was fielded in English in these markets (respondents had the option of selecting Hindi in India and Swahili in Kenya, but the majority selected English), and restricted to ages 18 to 50 in Kenya and Nigeria.  In some other markets, where internet penetration is lower, our data often represent younger and more affluent groups – even if they meet other nationally representative quotas. For all these reasons, one should be cautious in comparing data points across markets where we know these limitations apply (see methodology). In a few markets we do not ask certain questions (such as on paying for news and podcasts) because we feel these could lead to misunderstandings or misleading comparisons. We have also signalled important details about samples in a short note on the country page, where relevant.

We have ordered the countries and markets by geography (Europe, Americas, Asia-Pacific, and Africa) and within each region countries are then ordered alphabetically – with the exception of UK at the start of the Europe section and the United States at the start of the Americas.

We have not published data on devices this year, because after trialling a new question we felt the data in some countries were flawed. We continue to try to provide the most accurate data possible and will reintroduce device data in 2024.